Green vehicle

The Toyota Prius is the world's top selling hybrid electric vehicle, with global sales of 3.7 million units through April 2016.[1] Some owners use its identity to make an environmental statement.[2]

A green vehicle, or clean vehicle, or eco-friendly vehicle or environmentally friendly vehicle is a road motor vehicle that produces less harmful impacts to the environment than comparable conventional internal combustion engine vehicles running on gasoline or diesel, or one that uses certain alternative fuels.[3][4][5] Presently, in some countries the term is used for any vehicle complying or surpassing the more stringent European emission standards (such as Euro6), or California's zero-emissions vehicle standards (such as ZEV, ULEV, SULEV, PZEV), or the low-carbon fuel standards enacted in several countries.[6]

Green vehicles can be powered by alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies and include hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, battery electric vehicles, compressed-air vehicles, hydrogen and fuel-cell vehicles, neat ethanol vehicles, flexible-fuel vehicles, natural gas vehicles, clean diesel vehicles, and some sources also include vehicles using blends of biodiesel and ethanol fuel or gasohol.[7][8] In November 2016, with an EPA-rated fuel economy of 136 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpg-e) (1.7 L/100 km), the 2017 Hyundai Ioniq Electric became the most efficient EPA-certified vehicle considering all fuels and of all years, surpassing the 2014-2016 model year all-electric BMW i3.[5][9]

Several author also include conventional motor vehicles with high fuel economy, as they consider that increasing fuel economy is the most cost-effective way to improve energy efficiency and reduce carbon emissions in the transport sector in the short run.[1] As part of their contribution to sustainable transport, these vehicles reduce air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, and contribute to energy independence by reducing oil imports.[2][1]

An environmental analysis extends beyond just the operating efficiency and emissions. A life-cycle assessment involves production and post-use considerations. A cradle-to-cradle design is more important than a focus on a single factor such as energy efficiency.[3][4]

Cars with similar production of energy costs can obtain, during the life of the car (operational phase), large reductions in energy costs through several measures:

Comparison of several types of green car basic characteristics
(Values are overall for vehicles in current production and may differ between types)
Type of vehicle/
powertrain
Fuel economy
(mpg equivalent)
Range Production cost
for given range
Reduction in CO2
compared to conventional
Payback period
Conventional ICE 10–78 Long
(400–600 mi)
Low 0% -
Biodiesel 18–71 Long
(360–540 mi)
Low varies depending on biodiesel source[5] -
All-electric 54–118 Shorter
(73–150 mi)
Luxury models
Medium
(160–300 mi)
High

Very high
varies depending
on energy source
-
Hydrogen fuel cell 80[6] Astronomical
Hybrid electric 30–60 380 mi[7] Medium 5 years[8][1]
Comparison of energy efficiency between battery and hydrogen fuel-cell cars
Sales of both the Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid (top) and the Nissan Leaf all-electric car (bottom) began in December 2010.
PSA Peugeot Citroën Hybrid Air concept exhibited at the 2013 Geneva Motor Show

Green vehicles include vehicles types that function fully or partly on alternative energy sources other than fossil fuel or less carbon intensive than gasoline or diesel.

Another option is the use of alternative fuel composition in conventional fossil fuel-based vehicles, making them function partially on renewable energy sources. Other approaches include personal rapid transit, a public transportation concept that offers automated, on-demand, non-stop transportation on a network of specially built guideways.

Electric and fuel cell-powered[edit]

Examples of vehicles with reduced petroleum consumption include electric cars, plug-in hybrids and fuel cell-powered hydrogen cars.

Electric cars are typically more efficient than fuel cell-powered vehicles on a Tank-to-wheel basis.[2] They have better fuel economy than conventional internal combustion engine vehicles but are hampered by range or maximum distance attainable before discharging the battery. The electric car batteries are their main cost. They provide a 0%[3] to 99.9% reduction in CO2 emissions compared to an ICE (gasoline, diesel) vehicle, depending on the source of electricity.[4]

Hybrid electric vehicles[edit]

Hybrid cars may be partly fossil fuel (or biofuel) powered and partly electric or hydrogen-powered. Most combine an internal combustion engine with an electric engine, though other variations too exist. The internal combustion engine is often either a gasoline or Diesel engine (in rare cases a Stirling engine may even be used[5]). They are more expensive to purchase but cost redemption is achieved in a period of about 5 years due to better fuel economy.[6][7]

Compressed air cars, stirling vehicles, and others[edit]

Compressed air cars, stirling-powered vehicles, Liquid nitrogen vehicles are even less polluting than electrical vehicles, as the vehicle and its components can be made more environmentally friendly.

Solar car races are held on a regular basis in order to promote green vehicles and other "green technology". These sleek driver-only vehicles can travel long distances at highway speeds using only the electricity generated instantaneously from the sun.

Improving conventional cars[edit]

The Fiat Siena Tetrafuel 1.4 is a multifuel car designed to run as a flex-fuel on gasoline, or E20–E25 blend, or neat ethanol (E100); or to run as a bi-fuel with natural gas (CNG).

A conventional vehicle can become a greener vehicle by mixing in renewable fuels or using less carbon intensive fossil fuel. Typical gasoline-powered cars can tolerate up to 10% ethanol. Brazil manufactured cars that run on neat ethanol, though there were discontinued. Another available option is a flexible-fuel vehicle which allows any blend of gasoline and ethanol, up to 85% in North America and Europe, and up to 100% in Brazil.[8] Another existing option is to convert a conventional gasoline-powered to allow the alternative use of CNG. Pakistan, Argentina, Brazil, Iran, India, Italy, and China have the largest fleets of natural gas vehicles in the world.[4]

Diesel-powered vehicles can often transition completely to biodiesel, though the fuel is a very strong solvent, which can occasionally damage rubber seals in vehicles built before 1994. More commonly, however, biodiesel causes problems simply because it removes all of the built-up residue in an engine, clogging filters, unless care is taken when switching from dirty fossil-fuel derived diesel to bio-diesel. It is very effective at 'de-coking' the diesel engines combustion chambers and keeping them clean. Biodiesel is the lowest emission fuel available for diesel engines. Diesel engines are the most efficient car internal combustion engines. Biodiesel is the only fuel allowed in some North American national parks because spillages will completely bio-degrade within 21 days. Biodiesel and vegetable oil fuelled, diesel engined vehicles have been declared amongst the greenest in the US Tour de Sol competition.

This presents problems, as biofuels can use food resources in order to provide mechanical energy for vehicles. Many experts point to this as a reason for growing food prices, particularly US Bio-ethanol fuel production which has affected maize prices. In order to have a low environmental impact, biofuels should be made only from waste products, or from new sources like algae.

Electric Motor and Pedal Powered Vehicles[edit]

Multiple companies are offering and developing two, three, and four wheel vehicles combining the characteristics of a bicycle with electric motors. US Federal, State and Local laws do not clearly nor consistently classify[9] these vehicles as bicycles, electric bicycles, motorcycles, electric motorcycles, mopeds, Neighborhood Electric Vehicle, motorised quadricycle or as a car. Some laws have limits on top speeds, power of the motors, range, etc. while others do not.[10][11][12][13]

Other[edit]

  • Public transportation vehicles are not usually included in the green vehicle category, but Personal rapid transit (PRT) vehicles probably should be. All vehicles that are powered from the track have the advantage of potentially being able to use any source of electric energy, including sustainable ones, rather than requiring liquid fuels. They can also switch regenerative braking energy between vehicles and the electric grid rather than requiring energy storage on the vehicles. Also, they can potentially use the entire track area for solar collectors, not just the vehicle surface. The potential PRT energy efficiency is much higher than that which traditional automobiles can attain.
  • Solar vehicles are electric vehicles powered by solar energy obtained from solar panels on the surface (generally, the roof) of the vehicle. Photovoltaic (PV) cells convert the Sun's energy directly into electrical energy. Solar vehicles are not practical day-to-day transportation devices at present, but are primarily demonstration vehicles and engineering exercises, often sponsored by government agencies. However, some cities have begun offering solar-powered buses, including the Tindo in Adelaide, Australia.
  • Wind-powered electric vehicles primarily use wind-turbines installed at a strategic point of the vehicle, which are then converted into electric energy which causes the vehicle to propel.
  • ^ "Energy efficiency comparison article" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-10-14. Retrieved 2010-12-12.
  • ^ http://shrinkthatfootprint.com/electric-car-emissions#.UWMjH5xsYH4.email%7C"eg India, China, Australia"
  • ^ "Alternate Fuel Technology - Battery Electric Vehicles". (245 KB)
  • ^ Precer's BioRacer Stirling engine-electric hybrid
  • ^ "Consumer Reports Revises Financial Analysis In Report on Ownership Costs for Hybrid Cars". Consumer Reports. Consumers Union. 7 March 2006. Archived from the original on 2007-09-21. Retrieved 2007-04-27.
  • ^ "The dollars & sense of hybrid cars".
  • ^ "Dual Fuel Cars Revive Brazil's Alcohol Industry".
  • ^ "Natural Gas Vehicle Statistics". International Association for Natural Gas Vehicles. Archived from the original on 2010-01-10. Retrieved 2009-10-19.
  • ^ "NHTSA/DOT final rule on Neighborhood Electric Vehicles (NEV)63 FR 33913, June 17, 1998". US DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION. Retrieved 2015-11-14.
  • ^ CPSC Requirements for Low-Speed Electric Bicycles
  • ^ Search Results - THOMAS (Library of Congress)
  • ^ http://electricbikereport.com/new-california-law-electric-bike-regulations/#more-18708
  • ^ "California Assembly Bill No. 1096 CHAPTER 568 October 7, 2015". Retrieved 2015-11-14.
  • Horse and carriage are just one type of animal propelled vehicle. Once a common form of transportation, they became far less common as cities grew and automobiles took their place. In dense cities, the waste produced by large numbers of transportation animals was a significant health problem. Oftentimes the food is produced for them using diesel powered tractors, and thus there is some environmental impact as a result of their use.

    Human powered transport includes walking, bicycles, velomobiles, row boats, and other environmentally friendly ways of getting around. In addition to the health benefits of the exercise provided, they are far more environmentally friendly than most other options. The only downside is the speed limitations, and how far one can travel before getting exhausted.

    Environmental[edit]

    Vehicle emissions contribute to the increasing concentration of gases linked to climate change.[14] In order of significance, the principal greenhouse gases associated with road transport are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O).[15] Road transport is the third largest source of greenhouse gases emitted in the UK, and accounts for over 20% of total emissions,[16] and 33% in the United States.[17] Of the total greenhouse gas emissions from transport, over 85% are due to CO2 emissions from road vehicles. The transport sector is the fastest growing source of greenhouse gases.[18]

    Health[edit]

    Vehicle pollutants have been linked to human ill health including the incidence of respiratory and cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer. A 1998 report estimated that up to 24,000 people die prematurely each year in the UK as a direct result of air pollution.[19] According to the World Health Organization, up to 13,000 deaths per year among children (aged 0–4 years) across Europe are directly attributable to outdoor pollution. The organization estimates that if pollution levels were returned to within EU limits, more than 5,000 of these lives could be saved each year.

    Monetary[edit]

    Hybrid taxi fleet operators in New York have also reported that reduced fuel consumption saves them thousands of dollars per year.[20]

    Criticism[edit]

    A study by CNW Marketing Research suggested that the extra energy cost of manufacture, shipping, disposal, and the short lives of some of these types of vehicle (particularly gas-electric hybrid vehicles) outweighs any energy savings made by their using less petroleum during their useful lifespan.[21] This type of argument is the long smokestack argument.[22] Critics of the report note that the study prorated all of Toyota's hybrid research-and-development costs across the relatively small number of Priuses on the road, rather than using the incremental cost of building a vehicle; used109,000 miles (175,000 km) for the length of life of a Prius (Toyota offers a 150,000-mile (240,000 km) warranty on the Prius' hybrid components, including the battery), and calculated that a majority of a car's cradle-to-grave energy gets expended during the vehicle's production, not while it is driven.[23] Norwegian Consumer Ombudsman official Bente Øverli stated that "Cars cannot do anything good for the environment except less damage than others." Based on this opinion, Norwegian law severely restricts the use of "greenwashing" to market automobiles, strongly prohibiting advertising a vehicle as being environmentally friendly, with large fines issued to violators.[14][24][25][26]

    Some studies try to compare environmental impact of electric and petrol vehicles over complete life cycle, including production, operation, and dismantling. [27] [27] [27] [28] In general, results differ vastly dependent on the region considered, due to difference in energy sources to produce electricity that fuels electric vehicles. When considering only CO2 emissions, it is noted that production of electric cars generate about twice as much emissions as that of internal combustion cars.[29] However, emissions of CO2 during operation are much larger (on average) than during production. For electric cars, emissions caused during operation depend on energy sources used to produce electricity and thus vary a lot geographically. Studies suggest that when taking into account both production and operation, electric cars would cause more emissions in economies where production of electricity is not clean, e.g., it is mostly coal based.[30][31]. For this reason, some studies found that driving electric cars is less environmentally damaging in western US states than in eastern ones, where less electricity is produced using cleaner sources. Similarly, in countries like India, Australia or China, where large portion of electricity is produced by using coal, driving electric vehicles would cause larger environmental damage than driving petrol vehicles. When justifying use of electric cars over petrol cars, these kinds of studies do not provide sufficiently clear results. Environmental impact is calculated based on fuel mix used to produce electricity that powers electric cars. However, when a gas vehicle is replaced by an equivalent electric vehicle, additional power must be installed in electrical grid. This additional capacity would normally not be based on the same ratios of energy sources ("clean" versus fossil fuels) than the current capacity. Only when additional electricity production capacity installed to switch from petrol to electric vehicles would predominantly consist of clean sources, switch to electric vehicles could reduce environmental damage. Another common problem in methodology used in comparative studies is that it only focuses on specific kinds of environmental impact. While some studies focus only on emission of gas pollutants over life cycle or only on greenhouse gas emissions such as CO2, comparison should also account for other environmental impacts such as pollutants released otherwise during production and operation or ingredients that can not be effectively recycled.[4] Examples include use of lighter high performing metals, lithium batteries and more rare metals in electric cars, which all have high environmental impact.

    A study that also looked at factors other than energy consumption and carbon emissions has suggested that there is no such thing as an environmentally friendly car.[9]

    The use of vehicles with increased fuel efficiency is usually considered positive in the short term but criticism of any hydrocarbon-based personal transport remains. The Jevons paradox suggests that energy efficiency programs are often counter-productive, even increasing energy consumption in the long run.[32] Many environmental researchers believe that sustainable transport may require a move away from hydrocarbon fuels and from our present automobile and highway paradigm.[33][34][35]

    European Union[edit]

    The European Union is promoting the marketing of greener cars via a combination of binding and non-binding measures.[36] As of April 2010, 15 of the 27 member states of the European Union provide tax incentives for electrically chargeable vehicles and some alternative fuel vehicles, which includes all Western European countries except Italy and Luxembourg, plus the Czech Republic and Romania. The incentives consist of tax reductions and exemptions, as well as of bonus payments for buyers of electric cars, plug-in hybrids, hybrid electric vehicles and natural gas vehicles.[37][38]

    United States[edit]

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is promoting the marketing of greener cars via the SmartWay program. The SmartWay and SmartWay Elite designation mean that a vehicle is a better environmental performer relative to other vehicles. This US EPA designation is arrived at by taking into account a vehicle's Air Pollution Score and Greenhouse Gas Score. Higher Air Pollution Scores indicate vehicles that emit lower amounts of pollutants that cause smog relative to other vehicles. Higher Greenhouse Gas Scores indicate vehicles that emit lower amounts of carbon dioxide and have improved fuel economy relative to other vehicles.

    To earn the SmartWay designation, a vehicle must earn at least a 6 on the Air Pollution Score and at least a 6 on the Greenhouse Gas Score, but have a combined score of at least 13. SmartWay Elite is given to those vehicles that score 9 or better on both the Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Scores.

    A Green Vehicle Marketing Alliance, in conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ONRL), periodically meets, and coordinates marketing efforts.[39]

    The Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE (PIAXP) is a set of competitions, programs and events, from the X PRIZE Foundation to "inspire a new generation of super-efficient vehicles that help break America's addiction to oil and stem the effects of climate change."[40] Progressive Insurance is the title sponsor of the prize, the centerpiece of which is the Competition Division, within which a $10 million purse will be divided between the winners of three competitions.

    The essence of each competition is to design, build and race super-efficient vehicles that will achieve 100 MPGe (2.35 liter/100 kilometer) and can be produced for the mass market.[41] Within the Competition Division, there are two vehicle classes: Mainstream and Alternative. The mainstream class has a prize of $5 million. The alternate class has 2 separate prizes of $2.5 million, one for side-by-side seating and one for tandem seating.[38]

    Some of the competitors, such as Aptera and Tesla, are already taking deposits for 'green' vehicles from customers.

    BMW i3 electric car
    Mitsubishi i-MiEV electric car
    Ford C-Max Energi plug-in hybrid
    Tesla Model S electric car
    Ford Fusion Energi plug-in hybrid

    Several automobile magazines, motor vehicle specialized publications and environmental groups publish annual rankings or listings of the best green cars of a given year. The following table presents a selection of the annual top pickings.

    Selected annual rankings of green cars
    Vehicle Year
    model
    Type of
    vehicle/fuel
    EPA
    Combined
    mileage
    (mpg)
    EPA
    City
    mileage
    (mpg)
    EPA
    Highway
    mileage
    (mpg)
    Most efficient EPA-certified vehicles based on combined MPG rating[42][13][43][44]
    Hyundai Ioniq Electric— All years, all fuels 2017 Electric car 136 mpg-e 150 mpg-e 122 mpg-e
    BMW i3— All years, all fuels 2014/16 Electric car 124 mpg-e 137 mpg-e 111 mpg-e
    BMW i3 REx — Current year, gasoline fuel 2014/16 Plug-in hybrid 88 mpg-e 97 mpg-e 79 mpg-e
    Toyota Prius Eco — All years, gasoline fuel 2016 Hybrid electric 56 58 53
    Green Car JournalGreen Car of the Year
    Chevrolet Bolt EV — 2017 Award[45] 2017 Electric car 119 mpg-e 128 mpg-e 110 mpg-e
    Chevrolet Volt (second generation) — 2016 Award[46][47] 2016 Plug-in hybrid Gas equivalent
    All-electric mode
    Gasoline
    only mode
    All-electric range
    106 mpg-e 42 mpg 53 mi
    BMW i3 — 2015 Award[47] 2014 Electric car 124 mpg-e 137 mpg-e 111 mpg-e
    Honda Accord ninth generation line-up
    — 2014 Award[48]
    2014 Gasoline
    hybrid and plug-in variants
    mim 29 mpg, hybrid 47 mpg, plug-in 115 mpg-e[49]
    Ford Fusion 2nd gen line-up — 2013 Award[50] 2013 Gasoline, EcoBoost,
    hybrid and plug-in variants
    mim 34 mpg, hybrid 47 mpg, plug-in 100 mpg-e
    Honda Civic GX — 2012 Award[51] 2012 Natural gas 28 24 36
    Chevrolet Volt — 2011 Award[52][53][52] 2011 Plug-in hybrid Gas equivalent
    All-electric mode
    Gasoline
    only mode
    All-electric range
    93 mpg-e 37 mpg 35 mi
    Green Car JournalGreen Car Vision Award
    Ford C-Max Energi — 2012 Award[54] 2013 Plug-in hybrid Gas equivalent
    All-electric mode
    Gasoline
    only mode
    All-electric range
    100 mpg-e
    43 mpg
    20 mi
    Ford Focus Electric — 2011 Award[55] 2012 Electric car Gasoline equivalent
    fuel economy
    All-electric range
    105 mpg-e
    100 mi
    Nissan Leaf — 2010 Award[13][56] 2011 Electric car Gasoline equivalent
    fuel economy
    All-electric range
    99 mpg-e 73 mi
    Chevrolet Volt — 2009 Award[57][58][58] 2011 Plug-in hybrid Gas equivalent
    All-electric mode
    Gasoline
    only mode
    All-electric range
    93 mpg-e 37 mpg 35 mi
    World Car of the Year — World Green Car
    Toyota Mirai — 2016 Award[59] 2016 Hydrogen fuel cell 66 mpg-e 66 mpg-e 66 mpg-e
    BMW i8 — 2015 Award[60][61] 2015 Plug-in hybrid Gas equivalent
    All-electric mode
    Gasoline
    only mode
    All-electric range
    76 mpg-e 28 mpg 15 mi
    BMW i3 — 2014 Award[62] 2014 Electric car Gasoline equivalent
    fuel economy
    All-electric range
    124 mpg-e 81 mi
    Tesla Model S — 2013 Award[63] 2013 Electric car
    (60/85 kWh battery)
    Gasoline equivalent
    fuel economy
    All-electric range
    95/89 mpg-e 208/265 mi
    Mercedes-Benz S 250 CDI BlueEFFICIENCY
    — 2012 Award[64]
    2012 Clean diesel 5.7 l/100 km (50 mpg‑imp; 41 mpg‑US)
    Chevrolet Volt — 2011 Award[65] 2011 Plug-in hybrid Gas equivalent
    All-electric mode
    Gasoline
    only mode
    All-electric range
    93 mpg-e 37 mpg 35 mi
    Volkswagen BlueMotion — 2010 Award[64]
    (Golf, Passat, Polo)
    2010 Clean diesel n.a. n.a. n.a.
    Honda FCX Clarity — 2009 Award[65]
    (miles per kilogram of hydrogen)
    2009 Hydrogen fuel cell 59 mpg-e 58 mpg-e 60 mpg-e
    Consumer Reports Top Picks: Green Car Category
    Tesla Model S — Best overall model 2014[64] 2014 Electric car
    (60/85 kWh battery)
    Gasoline equivalent
    fuel economy
    All-electric range
    95/89 mpg-e 208/265 mi
    Toyota Prius — Best green car 2014[66] 2014 Hybrid electric 50 51 48
    Toyota Prius — Best green car 2013[67] 2013 Hybrid electric 50 51 48
    Toyota Prius — Best green car 2012[68] 2012 Hybrid electric 50 51 48
    Toyota Prius — Best green car 2011[65] 2011 Hybrid electric 50 51 48
    Toyota Prius — Best green car 2010[65] 2010 Hybrid electric 50 51 48
    Toyota Prius — Best green car 2009[69] 2009 Hybrid electric 46 48 45
    Consumer Reports American Top Picks: Green Car Category
    Ford Fusion Hybrid — Top Pick 2011[66] 2011 Hybrid electric 39 41 36
    Ford Fusion Hybrid — Top Pick 2010[69] 2010 Hybrid electric 39 41 36
    Ford Escape Hybrid — Top Pick 2009[66] 2009 Hybrid electric 32 34 31
    What Car? Green Awards
    BMW 320d Efficient Dynamics — Overall Winner 2012[69] 2012 Clean diesel UK combined 56 mpg‑imp (5.0 L/100 km; 47 mpg‑US)[66]
    Vauxhall Ampera — Overall Winner 2011[70] 2012 Plug-in hybrid EC combined 235.4 mpg‑imp (1.200 L/100 km; 196.0 mpg‑US)[67]
    Toyota Auris Hybrid — Overall Winner 2010[63] 2010 Hybrid electric UK combined 74 mpg‑imp (3.8 L/100 km; 62 mpg‑US)[71]
    Volvo S40 1.6D DRIVe S — Overall Winner 2009[63] 2009 Clean diesel UK combined 60 mpg‑imp (4.7 L/100 km; 50 mpg‑US)[63]
    Ford Focus 1.6 TDCi Style — Overall Winner 2008[63] 2008 Clean diesel UK combined 52 mpg‑imp (5.4 L/100 km; 43 mpg‑US)[65]
    Mother Earth News Best Green Cars
    Best Green Cars of 2011[66]
    Chevrolet Volt 2011 Plug-in hybrid Gas equivalent
    All-electric mode
    Gasoline
    only mode
    All-electric range
    93 mpg-e 37 mpg 35 mi
    Nissan Leaf 2011 Electric car Gasoline equivalent
    fuel economy
    All-electric range
    99 mpg-e 73 mi
    Toyota Prius 2011 Hybrid electric 50 51 48
    Ford Fiesta 2011 Gasoline 33 29 38
    Honda CR-Z CVT 2011 Hybrid electric 37 35 39
    VW Jetta TDI 2011 Clean diesel 34 30 42
    Best Green Cars of 2010[71]
    Ford Fusion Hybrid 2010 Hybrid electric 39 41 36
    Honda Civic Hybrid 2010 Hybrid electric 42 40 45
    Honda Insight 2010 Hybrid electric 41 40 43
    Toyota Prius 2010 Hybrid electric 50 51 48
    VW Golf TDI 2010 Clean diesel 34 30 42
    VW Jetta TDI 2010 Clean diesel 41 40 43
    American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy Greenest Vehicles of the Year
    Greenest Vehicles of 2012 (Top 5)[66]
    Mitsubishi i-MiEV 2012 Electric car 112 mpg-e 3.8 mile/Kwh 2.9 mile/Kwh
    Honda Civic GX 2012 Natural gas - 27mpg-e 38 mpg-e
    Nissan Leaf 2012 Electric car 99 mpg-e 3.1 mile/Kwh 2.7 mile/Kwh
    Toyota Prius 2012 Hybrid electric 50 51 48
    Honda Insight 2012 Hybrid electric 42 41 44
    Greenest Vehicles of 2011 (Top 5)[71][64]
    Honda Civic GX 2011 Natural gas 28 24 36
    Nissan Leaf 2011 Electric car 99 mpg-e 3.15 mile/Kwh 2.72 mile/Kwh
    Smart fortwo (Cabriolet/Coupe) 2011 Gasoline 36 33 41
    Toyota Prius 2011 Hybrid electric 50 51 48
    Honda Civic Hybrid 2011 Hybrid electric 41 40 43
    Greenest Vehicles of 2010 (Top 5)[71]
    Honda Civic GX 2010 Natural gas 28 24 36
    Toyota Prius 2010 Hybrid electric 50 51 48
    Honda Civic Hybrid 2010 Hybrid electric 42 40 45
    Smart fortwo (Convertible/coupe) 2010 Gasoline 36 33 41
    Honda Insight 2010 Hybrid electric 41 40 43
    Kelley Blue Book Top 10 Green Cars
    Top 10 Green Cars of 2014 (Top 5)[72]
    BMW i3 2014 Electric car Gasoline equivalent
    fuel economy
    All-electric range
    124 mpg-e 81 mi
    Nissan Leaf 2014 Electric car Gasoline equivalent
    fuel economy
    All-electric range
    99 mpg-e 73 mi
    Toyota Prius 2014 Hybrid electric 50 51 48
    Tesla Model S 2014 Electric car
    (60/85 kWh battery)
    Gasoline equivalent
    fuel economy
    All-electric range
    95/89 mpg-e 208/265 mi
    Honda Accord Hybrid 2014 Hybrid electric 47 50 45
    Top 10 Green Cars of 2011 (Top 3)[72][71]
    Nissan Leaf 2011 Electric car Gasoline equivalent
    fuel economy
    All-electric range
    99 mpg-e 73 mi
    Chevrolet Volt 2011 Plug-in hybrid Gasoline equivalent
    fuel economy
    All-electric range
    93 mpg-e 35 mi
    Toyota Prius 2011 Hybrid electric 50 51 48
    Top 10 Green Cars of 2010 (Top 3)[71][71]
    Toyota Prius 2010 Hybrid electric 50 51 48
    Honda Insight 2010 Hybrid electric 41 40 43
    Ford Fusion Hybrid 2010 Hybrid electric 39 41 36

    Dedicated electric and green vehicle motor shows:

    • Leitman, Seth; Brant, Bob (October 2008). Build Your Own Electric Vehicle, 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, Inc. ISBN 978-0-07-154373-6.
    • Tobin Smith; Jim Woods; Liz Claman (2008). "Waving the Green Flag, Clean Transportation". Billion Dollar Green. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 35–46. ISBN 978-0-470-34377-7.
    • DFE2008 Automobile Engines, Wikiversity

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